Reconsidering the Body Genre: Some time ago, I began adapting the ideas of literary Darwinists such as Joseph Carroll to the needs of film theory.
Constructionist approaches, from humanities theories like structuralism to methods High gloss softcore the social sciences, stress the human and ideological fabric of art and society. These approaches typically neglect the place of the human world in the broader context of nature.
Although this approach is contested in the humanities and in film studies in particular, it is often more commonsensical and parsimonious than a constructionist approach that would explain the appeal of softcore cinema by invoking ideology more than biology.
Naturally, this approach is also useful in the study of other sexualised forms, including art films and rape-revenge films. For example, recent insights into the biological underpinnings of rape and revenge can help film theorists analyse the narrative format and bodily appeal of the rape-revenge genre, wherein scholars such as Carol Clover, Jacinda Read, and Alexandra Heller-Nicholas have often discerned feminist content.
This sort of biocultural interpretation has several benefits. For one thing, it delivers the study of rape-revenge from a theoretical impasse that has grown increasingly pronounced as scholars like Read and Heller-Nicholas have abandoned psychoanalytic tools. In addition, the clarity of this analysis makes it a useful foundation for film theorists who would apply
High gloss softcore approaches to more problematic cultural phenomena where the logic may not be immediately apparent.
Postfeminist stylisation is one such phenomenon. A commercially indispensable feature of softcore as it has developed in the post-Code era, this stylisation is a complex aspect of an otherwise straightforward genre.
Such complexity can make the phenomenon appear ill suited to biocultural theorisation. Film theorists may discern the indirect, biocultural meanings of postfeminist stylisation by comparing motifs of sexual coercion present in softcore after King to coercion motifs available across rape-revenge. Rape-revenge implies a basic, causal, and even primal narrative format. Given that the victim can be a man, a child, or an
High gloss softcore person of any gender, is always possible in this format.
What makes rape-revenge an
High gloss softcore candidate for biocultural theorisation is that evolutionary psychologists have recently developed an account of heterosexual rape that is contested but whose parameters are clear; they have also developed a theory of the human instinct for revenge that is less contentious and whose parameters are equally clear.
To explain rape, biologists have started with natural selection and its variants, especially sexual selection. First conceived by Charles Darwin, these processes of selection indicate that traits proliferate in a species if they enhance reproduction and survival. In A Natural History of RapeRandy Thornhill and Craig Palmer have contributed a landmark account of this theory that is in pointed conflict with the feminist orthodoxy dominant in the humanities.
According to Susan Brownmiller and other second-wave feminists, rape is an
High gloss softcore of High gloss softcore power rooted in culture, not an expression of sexual desire rooted in nature.
Thornhill and Palmer contest this account by ruling out nonsexual motives for rape like anger and a need for control — However, as a historian of science and a gender scholar, Griet Vandermassen discerns flaws in their approach.
Indeed, Smuts specifies that. Because males across species make a smaller parental investment than females, they are on average the more promiscuous sex, more interested in mate quantity than mate quality.
To achieve such High gloss softcore, some men choose violence. This Darwinian account of heterosexual rape may be connected to the emerging Darwinian account of the human instinct for revenge to create a balanced evolutionary theory of rape-revenge. As an adaptive trait, the revenge instinct was initially a problem-solver whose main function was to deter aggressors from harming people more than once McCullough hypothesises that this instinct spurred the rise of social cooperation, which in turn led to justice.
Susan Jacoby sees revenge not as a disorder but as a social problem in civilisations where third-party institutions provide the benefits of revenge while moving its "High gloss softcore" from the individual to society 1—7. The difficulty is to explain how it evolved given costs that might lower individual fitness. What makes these accounts applicable to rape-revenge is that they present rape as a reliable trigger of the revenge instinct.
In a study of American adults cited by McCullough, only the murder of a child was more likely to trigger vengeful thoughts than the rape of a family member or oneself As Sommers notes, revenge works in honour cultures to deter offences that include the rape of wives The evolution of revenge may be linked to the development of the patriarchal practices critiqued by second-wave feminism that evolved as part of the male coercive repertoire.
A biocultural reading of rape-revenge would present the genre not as an arbitrary and artificial construct but one whose main motifs express evolved human drives. This biocultural reading can account for the recurrence of themes like trauma, for the pain of rape is predicted by selection theory. Rape deprives women of the choosiness that "High gloss softcore" their birthright due to differences in parental investment.
Thus the flashback is a common rape-revenge technique that has driven stylistic innovation; for instance, in Straw DogsSam Peckinpah improvised editing methods to capture the anxiety and psychic fractures experienced by the heroine Susan George when she attends a village social after being raped Prince 80—6.
This biocultural reading also explains the recurrence of images of castration and torture in the genre, motifs High gloss softcore reinforce the sense of rape as a special crime. The most iconic revenge for rape is castration. In rape-revenge, avengers deprive rapists of their offending organs by biting them off—sometimes after an avenger feigns attraction to a rapist, as in the original The Last House on the Left Wes Craven, —or by hacking or snipping them off, as in the original and remade I Spit on Your Grave.
Like rape, castration robs its victim of reproductive fitness. If castration is the motif best equipped to convey the instinctual horror of rape to men, torture is best equipped to tell the feminist story of rape as a crime of power, not High gloss softcore. In the feminist account, heterosexual rape is a form of male dominance.
High gloss softcore biocultural approach offers clues to the instinctual motives driving victims, victimisers and avengers.
If heterosexual rape is a violent assertion of male control over female sexuality by an aggressive man, revenge for rape can be a reassertion of male control over female sexuality by a different man a father, a boyfriend, etc. The latter "High gloss softcore" touch on the feminist critique that is the subtext of many rape-revenge films, from I Spit on Your Grave to Hannie Caulder Burt Kennedy,Thriller: Clearly, heterosexual rape-revenge, with its themes of sexual control and victimisation, is fertile ground for feminist critique—and the empowerment themes evident in revenge scenes across the genre realise that potential.
The heroine not only empowers herself in spectacular fashion to eliminate another attacker but has the self-possession to then return to her original identity as an High gloss softcore woman confidently steering her own vehicle into the future.
Rape-revenge is willing to offend all audiences through graphic acts of revenge and rape scenes that feature an attractive heroine whose body is on display. Besides its interpretive power, the biocultural approach has the virtue of breaking a theoretical impasse. In abandoning the psychoanalytic methods that informed early research on the genre, feminists such as Read and Heller-Nicholas have seemingly abandoned any attempt to discover an overarching theory "High gloss softcore" makes sense of the genre.
Fortunately, the biocultural approach can interpret all these features of rape-revenge. Unlike psychoanalysis, however, the biocultural approach posits that rape-revenge motifs are rooted in human instincts formed through thousands of generations of Darwinian selection.
The value of the biocultural approach is clear in the context of rape-revenge, where its logic may be applied directly. For this interpretive approach to have a broader value, though, film theorists must also be able to apply it to cultural phenomena where its logic is not so direct. An evolutionary logic, albeit an indirect one, informs postfeminist softcore, which is stylised to avoid the controversy that seems so natural High gloss softcore the context of rape-revenge reception.
Before pursuing this claim, it helps to define the postfeminist clearly. In its basic usage, the postfeminist is a period term referring to the decades after the rise of second-wave feminism in the s and s Tasker and Negra 1—22; Projansky 66— This usage varies depending on whether postfeminism is seen as replacing an active feminism or whether the period is merely seen as coming after the second wave.
Afterwhen Susan Faludi published Backlash ,it was typical to view postfeminism as a time of
High gloss softcore backlash against the rights of equality and choice and protections against workplace harassment, sex discrimination, etc.
However, at that same time, a more optimistic idea of the period—as one High gloss softcore which those rights and protections became so entrenched in society that they could almost be taken for granted by rising generations of women—was also available Projansky 72—9. The postfeminist era was thus marked by an ambivalence toward the feminist activism that generated it, which was reflected in the artefacts of the period.
The most egregious cases of male chauvinism faded from view as empowered women achieved a new visibility. Ultimately, feminisation has been a broader artefactual function of postfeminism than backlash.
Feminisation may be defined as any narrative or audiovisual effect that is aimed, first, at attracting female viewers and, second, at preempting feminist critiques. Such effects qualify as historically distinct distribution phenomena. They are industrial tools that ease the flow of movies and serials through the mainstream markets impacted by feminism. These tactics are particularly striking in sexualised body genres such as softcore.
The most widely distributed pornographies—like the postfeminist softcore of the s and s, in the U. The most traditional ways of defining the postfeminist are, then, as a period term ambivalent ideological resonance and as an artefactual concept with industrial functions.
It is also possible to reimagine the postfeminist in a nontraditional way as a biocultural concept. For example, theorists might consider the evolutionary basis of feminism. Like Smuts, Thornhill and Palmer have noted the resemblance of feminist activism to female alliances in other primate species Another way to approach postfeminism is through the idea of natural psychological differences between the sexes.
Evolutionary psychologists such as Donald Symons and David Buss High gloss softcore long been theorising such differences, which they predict would occur in areas where men and women faced different adaptive problems over their evolutionary history.
According to Buss, women who failed to solve the problems of child-rearing and resource allocation failed to perpetuate their genetic lineage—but those who did solve those problems, in part by securing a partner, were more likely to reproduce successfully —5. These ideas are relevant insofar as postfeminist producers and distributors have typically assumed stable differences between the sexes.
The industrial stereotyping that presents women as more interested than men in stories of romance and pair-bonding, and less interested than men in fantasies of liberation that objectify women and idealise unfettered could be rooted in the evolutionary differences described by Buss.
A third biocultural approach focuses on sexual coercion. It draws High gloss softcore evolutionary accounts of rape and revenge to infer the indirect, biocultural logic of postfeminist texts that obscure the evolutionary norm of male aggression. Especially late in the postfeminist era, producers of feminised softcore relied on tactics of inversion and evasion to please female viewers—or at least to avoid alienating them—for that audience
High gloss softcore crucial to their distribution strategy.
On one hand, this suite of effects is the product of complex cultural circumstances; on the other, it is removed from the predictions about heterosexual rape and coercion offered by both feminist and evolutionary theory. Hence, film theorists cannot use evolutionary psychology to read the mannered coercion motifs of postfeminist softcore in the direct way that they may use it to read the primal coercion motifs of rape-revenge.
But it is possible to infer the indirect biocultural logic of such motifs by considering them in context to perceive how and why cultural pressures systematically moulded them away from evolutionary norms.
As a creator of erotic film and television, King feminised his oeuvre to ensure its circulation through mainstream outlets.
By itself, this distribution strategy is not what distinguishes him from his precursors, for high-gloss producers of porno-chic-era erotic films like Just Jaeckin and Radley Metzger feminised their work to similar ends decades before King did.
For example, unlike Jaeckin, King avoided using rape as spectacle and limited his depiction of male coercion through stories that celebrate female agency.
King is remembered for his Showtime serial Red Shoe Diaries High gloss softcorewhich proved that softcore could win high ratings for cable. The feminised style of these films indicates that they were aimed at women, an inference King has confirmed Andrews, Soft Because women have always been a crucial cable demographic, their approval influenced programming choices Juffer ; Jaehne 15; Andrews, Soft 85—7. Later producers paid careful attention to King, who taught them how to circumvent obstacles to sexual content.
In some respects, this historical phenomenon recapitulated a process that had played out in the s and s. Early in that period, foreign High gloss softcore domestic producers of high-gloss sexploitation scored crossover successes by crafting films that appealed to women and men, allowing those films to play adventurous art houses as well as the grindhouses and drive-ins that were their typical exhibition sites Schaefer —7; Gorfinkel 26— Producers of softcore initially had to depend on the theatrical exploitation circuit to break even, but later they had to determine how to distribute their films through the new distribution schemes associated
High gloss softcore domestic technologies like cable and video Andrews, Soft 79— Further complicating matters was the fact that the late s were not as sexually open as the mids.
At the earlier time, sexual liberation and porno High gloss softcore were in vogue and second-wave feminism was just leaving its mark on American consciousness.
But as many critics have noted, there was a decided shift in the Reagan era Kendrick —39; Frug —63; Williams 16—23; Segal 59—70; Stadel 67— The videos are softcore posing with no slit play or masturbation. softcore movies download Com · Best erotic lactation high gloss softcore. SOFTCORE by SICK SHIT, released 27 February 1. of SOFTCORE via the free Bandcamp app, plus high-quality download in MP3, FLAC and more. Best erotic lactation high gloss softcore.
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